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Vallenato


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    • Vallenato
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  • Sources

    • found: Work cat.: 2001423950: Oñate Rivero, R. Vallenatos inmortales, 2000.
    • found: Garland encyc. of world music(under Afro-Colombian traditions: Vallenato emerged early in the 20th cent., influenced by work-related songs (zafras) and the Spanish romance. The term referred to a trio--accordion, caja (small, single-headed drum), and stick rasp (guacharaca)--that performed merengues and paseos. After a time, the term began to be used to describe a style and genre associated with the department of Valledupar. Cumbia and vallenato are the two most popular styles that have evolved out of the traditional music of Colombia. When vallenato spread from its rural context into the cities, its rhythms got simpler and other instruments--bass, guitar, conga, cowbell--joined the accordion-drum-scraper trio, modernizing the sound of the ensemble. By the 1980s, vallenato superseded salsa as the preferred music among blacks throughout much of Colombia)
    • found: New Grove, 2nd ed. WWW site, Jan. 11, 2002(under Colombia, Popular music: Related to the traditional cumbia, vallenato originated in the area around the city of Valledupar in the 1940s and 50s; performed by an ensemble consisting of accordion, vocals, caja (small double-headed drum) and guacharaca (notched gourd scraper). The two principal forms are the merengue (played in 6/8 metre) and the paseo (played in simple duple metre). Texts typically centre on life and heartbreak in the semi-rural regions of the eastern Atlantic coast. Unlike the cosmopolitan música tropical style, vallenato was seen as an unsophisticated, plebeian music through the 1950s and 60s. During the 1970s, vallenato's popularity grew with the addition of electric bass and the incorporation of a more plaintive singing style adopted from Mexican ranchera. A key factor in the national rise of vallenato during this decade was the growing economic power of the marijuana drug cartels around Santa Marta, which patronized vallenato musicians and provided resources for recordings and national distribution. Through the 1980s, the commercial vallenato ensemble was further enlarged, with back-up singers, keyboards and Cuban percussion. By the early 1990s, vallenato had come to replace musica tropical as the new popular Colombian sound)
    • found: All music guide WWW site, Jan. 11, 2002(A product of Colombia's northern coastal region, vallenato--a folk tradition that originated as recreational music performed by cattle-ranching cowboys--is among the country's most popular and influential musical exports. Created via a combination of three basic musical instruments--most commonly the accordion, bongo, and güiro--vallenato is also typified by its four basic rhythms: son (the slowest), paseo (the most common and most marketed), merengue (faster and more joyous), and puya (the fastest and most complex of them all). Lyrically, vallenato is chiefly concerned with romance, with most songs detailing either the singer's love of a woman or his affection for his hometown)
    • found: White, D. Dict. of popular music styles of the world(vallenato: popular accordion and vocal music of northeastern Colombia; vallenato pop: vallenato music with "pop" influence; tecno-vallenato: electronic vallenato music)
  • Change Notes

    • 2014-12-10: new
    • 2015-02-14: revised
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