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us: Crummell, Alexander, 1819-1898

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    • us: Crummell, Alex. (Alexander), 1819-1898
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    • found: The duty of a rising Christian state ... 1857: t.p. (Alex. Crummell)
    • found: Wikipedia, Sept. 20, 2013 (Alexander Crummell (March 3, 1819, New York City - September 10, 1898, Red Bank, New Jersey) was a pioneering African-American priest, professor and African nationalist; ordained as an Episcopal priest in the United States, Crummell went to England in the late 1840s to raise money for his church by lecturing about American slavery. Abolitionists supported his three years of study at Queens' College, Cambridge, where Crummell developed concepts of pan-Africanism; in 1875 he and his congregation founded St. Luke's Episcopal Church, in DC, the first independent black Episcopal church) {}
    • found: Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619-1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass, accessed via The Oxford African American Studies Center online database, July 27, 2014: (Crummell, Alexander; abolitionist, black nationalist, Episcopalian clergyperson; born March 3, 1819, New York City; between 1853 and 1872 was in Liberia with his family and became a citizen of the country; in Liberia worked as a missionary of the Protestant Episcopal Church of America and established a number of churches; also served as a professor of English and moral science at the College of Liberia; during the Civil War he made three trips to the United States, where he petitioned for support for African colonization; soon after the war's end he was named a commissioner by the Liberian government and given the responsibility of developing interest in emigration from the United States; outspoken and active black nationalist and Pan-Africanist; in 1872 opted to return to the United States; founded and pastored Saint Luke's Episcopal Church in Washington, D.C.; died 10 September 1898 in Red Bank, New Jersey, United States)
    • found: Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present: From the Age of Segregation to the Twenty-first Century, accessed January 5, 2014, via Oxford African American Studies Center database: (Crummell, Alexander; abolitionist, Black Nationalist, Episcopalian clergyperson; born 03 March 1819 in New York, New York, United States; completed the Oneida Institute in Whitesboro, New York (1839); AB in theology from Queens' College, Cambridge, England (1853); ordained as priest in the Episcopal Church (1842); traveled to Liberia as missionary of the Episcopal Church of the US hoping to establish a black Christian republic (1853); published famous sermons and essays, including The Future of Africa (1862); ran the Saint Mary's Episcopal Mission (1873); established the American Negro Academy (1897); died 10 September 1898 in Red Bank, New Jersey, United States)
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