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us: Marshall, Thurgood, 1908-1993


  • [Thurgood Marshall was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from October 1967 to October 1991. Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice. Marshall began his legal career in 1936 as Counsel to the Baltimore, Maryland branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In 1940, the NAACP created the Legal Defense and Education Fund, with Marshall as its Director and Counsel. He argued the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka before the Supreme Court of the United States, a case in which racial segregation in United States public schools was declared unconstitutional. In 1961 President Kennedy appointed Marshall to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Four years later, President Lyndon Johnson appointed him to be Solicitor General of the United States. On June 13, 1967, President Johnson nominated Marshall to the Supreme Court following the retirement of Justice Tom C. Clark. Thurgood Marshall was confirmed as an Associate Justice by a Senate vote of 69-11 on August 30, 1967.]

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    • found: White, W.F. What caused the Detroit riot? 1943.
    • found: Davis, M.D. Thurgood Marshall, c1992: p. 30 (b. July 2, 1908 in Baltimore, Md.)
    • found: Washington post, 1-25-93 (retired Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall died yesterday)
    • found: English Wikipedia website, viewed Mar. 19, 2012 (Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908--Jan. 24, 1993) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice; died in Bethesda, Md.)
    • found: University of Maryland, Francis King Carey School of Law, Thurgood Marshall Law Library web site, October 2, 2012: Thurgood Marshall bibliography, biographical synopsis (Thurgood Marshall began his legal career as counsel to the Baltimore branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); he joined the Association's national legal staff in 1936 and in 1938 became its Chief Legal Officer; in 1940, the NAACP created the Legal Defense and Education Fund, with Marshall as its Director and Counsel; Marshall coordinated the NAACP effort to end racial segregation; he argued the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka before the Supreme Court of the United States, a case in which racial segregation in United States public schools was declared unconstitutional; in 1961 President Kennedy appointed Marshall to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit; this was followed four years later by his appointment to Solicitor General of the United States by President Lyndon B. Johnson)
    • found: African American National Biography, accessed February 21, 2015, via Oxford African American Studies Center database: (Marshall, Thurgood; US Supreme Court Justice, civil rights activist, lawyer; born 02 July 1908 in Baltimore, Maryland, United States; graduated from Howard University School of Law (1933); was active in the Baltimore branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); became chief staff lawyer for NAACP in New York (1938-1961); achieved greatest triumph in Supreme Court decision, Brown v. Board of Education, which held that segretation of public schools was unconstitutional (1950-1955); argued the case of Cooper v. Aaron (1958); was appointed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (in New York) and the U.S. solicitor general (1965); was named the first African American Supreme Court justice; his most important contribution to constitutional doctrine was a “sliding-scale” theory of the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection of the laws, stated in Dandridge v. Williams (1970) and San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez (1973); died 24 January 1993 in Bethesda, Maryland, United States)
  • General Notes

    • [Thurgood Marshall was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from October 1967 to October 1991. Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice. Marshall began his legal career in 1936 as Counsel to the Baltimore, Maryland branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In 1940, the NAACP created the Legal Defense and Education Fund, with Marshall as its Director and Counsel. He argued the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka before the Supreme Court of the United States, a case in which racial segregation in United States public schools was declared unconstitutional. In 1961 President Kennedy appointed Marshall to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Four years later, President Lyndon Johnson appointed him to be Solicitor General of the United States. On June 13, 1967, President Johnson nominated Marshall to the Supreme Court following the retirement of Justice Tom C. Clark. Thurgood Marshall was confirmed as an Associate Justice by a Senate vote of 69-11 on August 30, 1967.]
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