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From Library of Congress Name Authority File


us: Civilian Public Service



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  • Variants

    • us: C.P.S.
    • us: CPS
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  • Sources

    • found: NUCMC data from Swarthmore College Peace Collection for Civilian Public Service personal papers : collected papers, 1941-1950 (Civilian Public Service; service for conscientious objectors during WWII)
    • found: National Service Board for Religious Objectors. Origins of Civilian Public Service, p. 3 (Civilian Public Service; C.P.S.; following passage of Selective Training and Service Act, Sept. 16, 1940, representatives of the Brethren, Friends, Mennonites, and Methodists suggested to govt. officials the desirability of est. a separate civilian agency of the govt. to handle the work of conscientious objectors; recommendation not accepted but Historic Peace Churches were asked by Selective Service System to indicate what responsiblities they would assume in regard to alternative service; Pres. Roosevelt turned down proposal; Historic Peace Churches decided to attempt administration of the program on an experimental basis; presidential approval was secured for this arrangement on Dec. 19, 1940)
    • found: Keim, A.M. Politics of conscience, p. 114-115 (unique church-state partnership, known as Civilian Public Service, enshrined in Exec. Order 8675, was signed by the president on Feb. 6, 1941; began as a six-month experiment, but lasted through a year of uneasy peace, four years of total war, and two years of demobilization; plan assigned conscientious objectors to camps for soil conservation and reforestation work; Agric. and Interior Depts. agreed to provide supervision for the work projects, Federal Security Agency made civilian conservation camps available, War Dept. offered dormitory furniture, Selective Service paid transportation expenses and assumed overall supervisory and policy responsibilities, and cooperating churches furnished all other necessary parts of the program including day-by-day administration of the camps, subsistance costs for the camps, and all care and maintance for the men; actual relationship of the religious agencies to the Selective Service Administration was not clearly defined)
    • found: Reporter, Mar. 1947 (Selective Service authorized the release on March 29, of all conscientious objectors now serving in Civilian Public Service Camps; culmination of the services of 12,000 conscientious objectors to war in an alternative service program which originated in May, 1941; 58 church administered camps and 4 govt. administered camps; CPS; work performed by men included reclaiming land, experimenting in technical fields, community education, recreational, and health programs, public health work, mental hospital work, work in training schools for mentally deficient children, milk tasters, dairy farm workers, and "guinea pig" projects in important scientific experiments on semi-starvation, yellow jaundice, influenza, colds, salt water diets, and others)
  • Change Notes

    • 1991-02-22: new
    • 1991-04-18: revised
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