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William, de Brailes, active 13th century


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  • Variants

    • Brailes, William de, active 13th century
    • De Brailes, William, active 13th century
    • William, de Brailes, 13th cent.
    • William, de Brailles, active 13th century
    • Brailles, William de, active 13th century
    • Brailes, W. de (William de), active 13th century
    • W., de Brail' (William, de Brailes), active 13th century
    • Brail', W. de (William de Brailes), active 13th century
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  • Earlier Established Forms

    • William, de Brailes, 13th cent.
  • Sources

    • found: Donovan, Claire. The de Brailes Hours, 1991:page 5 (William de Brailes, illuminator of Oxford) page 7 (W. de Brailes; William de Brailles; de Brailes) pages 9-21(the designer and painter of the very first book of hours; in it, records his name, w. de brail', in French caption; paints self-portrait in 3 historiated initials; professional illuminator; very distinctive style as artist and as designer; in one of a series of pictorial pages of biblical scenes, name recorded with Latin inscription; property records supply Christian name William and location of house; a well-established property-holding burgess; de Brailes and his assistants produced books in his house (now buried beneath All Souls College) in Catte Street, an early centre making manuscripts for sale and to order; a commercial book trade; highly illuminated liturgical manuscripts, tailor-made for their patrons, mostly laypeople, well-to-do and literate burgesses, also students and teachers; manuscripts could be adapted to suit needs of patrons using them outside Oxford; among first manuscripts illuminated by William de Brailes, a bible with strong Dominican connections, now in the Bodleian; adapted small format of bibles intended for private study for the book of hours, designed from the first with laity in mind; psalters had larger format; the largest was Oxford New College Psalter)
    • found: VIAF, 11 September 2019(authorized access points in VIAF cluster: William de Brailes, William, de Brailes, active 13th century, William de Brailes English manuscript illuminator, William de Brailes (English illuminator, active ca. 1230); VIAF ID: 42640982 (Personal)) - http://viaf.org/viaf/42640982
    • found: Oxford art online, 11 September 2019(William de Brailes; fl c. 1230-60; English illuminator; cited in 6 documents (c. 1230-60) relating to Oxford; he lived in Catte Street among other professionals engaged in book production; most probable that may be identified with illuminator W. de Brailes, whose name, w. de brail', appears in 2 manuscripts associated with Oxford: name twice in Book of Hours (c. 1240; London, BL, Add. MS. 49999) -- w. de brail' qui me depeint -- and Last Judgement miniature of the 6 leaves from a Psalter in Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (c. 1240; MS. 330, leaf 3) -- w. de brail' me fecit; de Brailes's contribution was to luxury trade, continuing tradition of illumination already established in Oxford; his signed manuscripts are substantially, if not wholly, own work; also collaborated with others; for certain projects, evidently the chief artist and designer, as in Psalter (c. 1240-50; Oxford, New College, MS. 322): painted most historiated initials and certain complete folios, but left much of the minor decoration to others; created small manuscripts, following trend towards portable books)
    • found: Oxford dictionary of national biography online, 11 September 2019(Brailes, William de (fl c. 1230-1260); manuscript artist, whose signature, W. de Brail', appears in 2 illustrated manuscripts of the mid-13th century, is almost certainly identifiable as the William de Brailes named in 5 Oxford property deeds of c.1230-1260; art historians have concluded that William de Brailes was head of workshop of manuscript artists based at his tenement in Catte Street; first workshop to which name and definite location can be assigned and whose products can be identified; name implies that came originally from Upper or Lower Brailes (Warwickshire), near Shipston-on-Stour; tonsured, probably clerk in minor orders, had a wife; Brailes and assistants decorated about dozen surviving manuscripts, including several Bibles; a psalter; sets of illustrated leaves probably originally belonging to 2 psalters; and earliest surviving fully illustrated English book of hours; also decorated 1 page of psalter possibly made in London, may therefore have spent part of career away from Oxford; may have occasionally worked as wall painter, or at least supplied designs for wall painting)
    • found: Wikipedia, 11 September 2019:William de Brailes (William de Brailes (active c. 1230-c. 1260); English Early Gothic manuscript illuminator, presumably born in Brailes, Warwickshire; illuminated Bibles, psalters, a Book of Hours, and secular texts, may also have been a scribe; some stylistic features of transition from Romanesque to mature Gothic; most manuscripts have page size similar to standard modern paperback, reflect trend towards personal ownership of books by well off but not extravagant members of both clergy and laity)
    • found: Wikidata, 11 September 2019(William de Brailes (Q8020766); also known as: William De Brailes; description: English manuscript illuminator; sex or gender: male; country of citizenship: England; date of birth: 13. century (from French Wikipedia); floruit: 1230-1260 (from French Wikipedia); date of death: 1260 (from German Wikipedia); occupation: illuminator; work location: Oxford) - http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q8020766
    • notfound: DNB, 1917.
  • Change Notes

    • 1992-05-06: new
    • 2019-09-19: revised
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