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us: Boyer, Jean Pierre, 1776-1850

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    • found: Correspondence relative to the emigration to Hayti, 1824: t.p. (President Boyer)
    • found: Pièces officielles relatives aux négociations du gouvernement français avec le gouvernemnet haïtien ... 1824: p. [1] (Jean-Pierre Boyer, president d'Haïti)
    • found: RLIN, 8/7/98 (hdgs.: Boyer, Jean Pierre, 1776-1850; Boyer, Jean Pierre, President Haiti, 1776-1850; Boyer, Jean Pierre, Pres. Haiti, 1776-1850)
    • found: Encycl. Britannica (Boyer, Jean Pierre, b. Port-au-Prince, 1776; a mulatto, and educated in France; President of Haiti from 1818-1843; Served with the mulatto leader Alexandre Sabès Pétion and the black leader Henry Christophe after they had killed the Haitian dictator Jean-Jacques Dessalines in 1806. He then served with Pétion against Christophe, and, after these two leaders had died, he succeeded in unifying the country in 1821; Boyer also negotiated an agreement with France in 1825 by which the French consented to recognize Haitian independence in return for the payment of an indemnity of 150 million francs as compensation for the massacre of French plantation owners by black slaves during the Haitian wars of independence. These payments soon placed an impossible financial burden on the already impoverished Haitian people. Boyer also maintained a huge corrupt army and a civil service that constantly preyed on the rural population. The gap between the black peasants in the countryside and the mulattoes of the towns grew during Boyer's presidency. The corruption of Boyer's rule and the stagnation of the economy finally led to a rebellion in 1843 that forced Boyer to flee to Jamaica and then to Paris; d. Paris, 1850)
    • found: Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, Second Edition, accessed June 08, 2015, via Oxford African American Studies Center database: (Boyer, Jean-Pierre; president; born in 1776 in Haiti; President of southern and western Haiti (1818-1820); convinced the eastern Spanish-ruled part of the island of Hispaniola (now the Dominican Republic) to declare its independence from Spain and voluntarily join the Haitian Republic (1821); President of all of Haiti (1820-1843); enacted new laws, including a new civil code, a code of civil procedure, a commerce code, and a rural code (1825-1826); managed to unite the country and governed for twenty-five years; died in 1850 in France)
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