- Verism (Opera)
- Naturalism in opera
- Realism in opera
- found: New Grove dict. opera (verismo: movement in Italian literature, and subsequently in opera, which developed in the 1870s; Mascagni's Cavalleria rusticana (first performed in 1890) became the prototype of a new genre; the term verismo was adopted, to designate not only the subject of the libretto but also the musico-dramatic structure of the work; the 1890s witnessed a brief flowering of operas on veristic subjects, both in Italy and abroad [French, German, Czech, and English examples are cited]; the genre petered out in the early years of the 20th century; verismo in literature had already given way to other trends by 1890)
- found: New Harvard dict. mus. (verismo: style of operatic composition, prevalent in Italy in the 1890s, with repercussions extending to other European countries and later decades; verismo in Italy began as a literary movement)
- found: Web. 3 (verism: 1. artistic use of contemporary everyday material, especially in opera, in preference to the heroic, the mythical and legendary, or the historical. 2. a realistic or objective style of musical composition or of painting appropriate to the treatment of everyday material)
- found: Am. heritage dict., 3rd ed. (verism: realism in art and literature; verismo: 1. verism. 2. artistic movement of the late 19th century, originating in Italy and influential especially in grand opera, marked by the use of common, everyday themes often treated in a melodramatic manner)
- found: Britannica Micro. (verismo: style of Italian opera writing that flourished in the last decade of the 19th century; occasional veristic operas were written in the 20th century; separate entry for verismo as literary realism as it developed in Italy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries)
- found: Academic Am. encyc. (verismo: sometimes Anglicized as verism; artistic movement originating in the late 19th century; used for Italian opera of the period)
- found: Americana (verismo: in music, 19th-century operatic manner emphasizing vigorous presentation of everyday life at the expense of conventional nobility and beauty)
- found: 2004476010: Bruneau, Alfred. Alfred Bruneau, c2003.
- 2005-02-14: new
- 2005-04-18: revised
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