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Afghanistan--History--British Intervention, 1838-1842


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    • found: Work cat.: 2011024091: The dark defile, 2011:CIP introd. (In the summer heat of 1839 British forces marched, flags flying, into Kabul to replace Afghanistan's capable ruler, Dost Mohammed, with another, Shah Shuja, less able and less popular with his subjects but politically more acceptable in British eyes. Two years later, against their expectations, the British army was still mired in Afghanistan)
    • found: Britannica online, June 14, 2011(In November 1837 Moḥammad Shah of Persia laid siege to Herāt, which the British saw as the key to India. The Russians supported the Persians. The British, fearful that Persia was falling completely under Russian influence, entered into alliances with the rulers of Herāt, Kabul, and Kandahār. A British mission to Kabul under Captain (later Sir) Alexander Burnes in 1837 was welcomed by Dūst Moḥammad, who hoped the British would help him recover Peshawar. Burnes could not give him the required assurances; and when a Russian agent appeared in Kabul, the British left for India. With the failure of Burnes's mission, the governor-general of India, Lord Auckland, ordered an invasion of Afghanistan, with the object of restoring Shah Shojā to the throne. In April 1839, after suffering great privations, the British army entered Kandahār; Shojā was then crowned shah. Outbreaks continued throughout the country, and the British eventually found their position untenable. Terms for their withdrawal were discussed with Akbar Khan, Dūst Moḥammad's son, but Sir William Hay Macnaghten, the British political agent, was killed during a parlay with the Afghans. On January 6, 1842, some 4,500 British and Indian troops, with 12,000 camp followers, marched out of Kabul. Bands of Afghans swarmed around them, and the retreat ended in a bloodbath. Shah Shojā was killed after the British left Kabul)
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    • DS363
  • Change Notes

    • 2011-06-13: new
    • 2011-09-03: revised
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