- Shia Muslims
- Shiah Muslims
- Shiite Muslims
- found: Wikipedia, Feb. 6, 2012: Shia Islam (The followers of Shia Islam are called Shi'ites or Shias. "Shia" is the short form of the historic phrase Shīʻatu ʻAlī [in rom.], meaning "followers of Ali", "faction of Ali", or "party of Ali"; Shia Muslims)
- found: Women and Islam, c2010: table of contents (Shi'a Muslim women in southern California)
- found: Norton, A.R. Hezbollah, c2007: table of contents (Being a Shiʻa Muslim in the twentieth century)
- found: Facing one qiblah : legal and doctrinal aspects of Sunni and Shi'ah Muslims, 2005.
- found: Haidar, H.H. Liberalism and Islam : practical reconciliation between the liberal state and Shiite Muslims, 2008.
- found: What is the difference between Sunni and Shiite Muslims--and why does it matter?, via WWW, viewed Feb. 6, 2012 (The Sunni branch believes that the first four caliphs--Mohammed's successors--rightfully took his place as the leaders of Muslims. They recognize the heirs of the four caliphs as legitimate religious leaders. ... Shiites, in contrast, believe that only the heirs of the fourth caliph, Ali, are the legitimate successors of Mohammed. ... The groups first diverged after the Prophet Muhammad died in 632, and his followers could not agree on whether to choose bloodline successors or leaders most likely to follow the tenets of the faith. The group now known as Sunnis chose Abu Bakr, the prophet's adviser, to become the first successor, or caliph, to lead the Muslim state. Shiites favored Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law. Ali and his successors are called imams, who not only lead the Shiites but are considered to be descendants of Muhammad; the largest sect of Shiites is known as "twelvers")
- found: Shi'a Islam, via Jewish virtual library website, Feb. 6, 2012 (Shi'a Islam is the only major schism in Islam. It is not a recent schism, however, for it dates back right to the foundations of Islam. Shi'ite historians believe that Shi'ism began shortly after the death of Muhammad, when the Caliphate, or secular leadership of Islam, was handed to Muhammad's father-in-law, Abu Bakr, rather than 'Ali, Muhammad's chosen successor. The Muslims who supported 'Ali called themselves the "Partisans of 'Ali" (Shi'a 'Ali ); these supporters, who were only four in number, are the root of Shi'a Islam. Western and Sunni historians date Shi'ism as a religion to the death of Husayn, the grandson of Muhammad, in the battle of Karbala. The celebration of this martyrdom by the Shi'a 'Ali represents for these historians the first clear instance of separate religious practice; the Shi'ites would develop a religious doctrine that differs in fundamental respects from orthodox, or Sunni Islam; The Imamate is the central aspect of Shi'ite Islam and what principally distinguishes it from orthodox or Sunni Islam. In all other respects, Shi'a Islam is virtually identical with Sunni practice.)
- found: Shiite and Sunni : what are the differences?, via Christian Science monitor website, Feb. 6, 2012 (What are the origins of the Sunni and Shiite sects?: Both sects are Muslim. They believe the Koran is the direct word of God, passed down to the prophet Muhammad in a series of revelations before his death. They pray in the direction of Mecca, and share the same dietary and general social restrictions. Their schism lies in disputes over who would succeed Muhammad as leader of the faithful after his death in 632. The Shiites thought the prophet's son-in-law and cousin should lead as caliph, particularly given his blood relationship to Muhammad. Their opponents, the Sunnis, thought Abu Bakr, one of Mohammad's first converts, should be their leader. The Shiites lost a series of wars for power in the early years of Islam and today are the clear minority in global Islam, making up about 15 percent of adherents. They are in the majority in Iraq and Iran.)
- 1986-02-11: new
- 2012-05-07: revised
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