- found: Encyc. Britannica online, Aug. 9, 2012 (troubadour, lyric poet of southern France, northern Spain, and northern Italy, writing in the langue d'oc of Provence; the troubadours, flourished from the late 11th to the late 13th century. Their social influence was unprecedented in the history of medieval poetry. Favoured at the courts, they had great freedom of speech, occasionally intervening even in the political arena, but their great achievement was to create around the ladies of the court an aura of cultivation and amenity that nothing had hitherto approached. Troubadour poetry formed one of the most brilliant schools that ever flourished, and it was to influence all later European lyrical poetry.)
- found: Wikipedia, Aug. 9, 2012 (A troubadour (Occitan: trobador) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100-1350). Since the word "troubadour" is etymologically masculine, a female troubadour is usually called a trobairitz. The troubadour school or tradition began in the late 11th century in Occitania, but it subsequently spread into Italy, Spain, and even Greece. Under the influence of the troubadours, related movements sprang up throughout Europe: the Minnesang in Germany, trovadorismo in Galicia and Portugal, and that of the trouvères in northern France. ... The Occitan words trobador and trobaire are relatively rare compared with the verb trobar (compose, invent), which was usually applied to the writing of poetry. It signified that a poem was original to an author (trobador) and was not merely sung or played by one. The term was used mostly for poetry only and in more careful works, like the vidas, is not generally applied to the composition of music or to singing, though the troubadour's poetry itself is not so careful. Sometime in the middle of the 12th century, however, a distinction was definitely being made between an inventor of original verse and the performers of others'. These last were called joglars, from the Latin ioculatores, giving rise also to the French jongleur, Castilian juglar, and English juggler, which has come to refer to a more specific breed of performer. The medieval jongleur/joglar is really a minstrel.)
- found: Dictionary.com, Aug. 9, 2012 (troubadour: one of a class of medieval lyric poets who flourished principally in southern France from the 11th to 13th centuries, and wrote songs and poems of a complex metrical form in langue d'oc, chiefly on themes of courtly love. Compare trouvère. 2. any wandering singer or minstrel.)
- found: Merriam-Webster online, Aug. 9, 2012 (troubadour: 1 : one of a class of lyric poets and poet-musicians often of knightly rank who flourished from the 11th to the end of the 13th century chiefly in the south of France and the north of Italy and whose major theme was courtly love -- compare trouvère. 2 : a singer especially of folk songs)
- found: Web. 3 (troubadour also troubador. 1: one of a class of lyric poets and poet-musicians often of knightly rank flourishing from the 11th to the end of the 13th century chiefly in Provence, the south of France, and the north of Italy, and cultivating a lyric poetry intricate in meter and rhyme and usu. of a romantic amatory strain -- compare trouvère. 2: a strolling minstrel; also: anyone who in music, verse, or rhetorical prose promotes some cause)
- found: American heritage dict. of the Engl. lang., c2000 (troubadour 1. One of a class of 12th-century and 13th-century lyric poets in Southern France, northern Italy, and northern Spain, who composed songs in langue d'oc often about courtly love. 2. A strolling minstrel)
- found: Random House Webster's unabridged dict., c1997 (troubadour 1. one of a class of medieval lyric poets who flourished principally in southern France from the 11th to 13th centuries, and wrote songs and poems of a complex metrical form in langue d'oc, chiefly on themes of courtly love. Cf. trouvère. 2. any wandering singer or minstrel)
- 1986-02-11: new
- 2012-12-06: revised
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