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The Library of Congress > Linked Data Service > BIBFRAME Ontology: Category view
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BIBFRAME Logo This display of the BIBFRAME vocabulary presents all of the properties, sorted into broad categories like titles, identifiers, relationships, etc.

General Properties

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
identifiedBy Identifier / Character string associated with a resource that serves to differentiate that resource from other resources, i.e., that uniquely identifies an entity. Unspecified Identifier
qualifier Qualifier / Qualifier of information, such as an addition to a title to make it unique or qualifying information associated with an identifier. Unspecified Literal
adminMetadata Administrative metadata / Metadata about the metadata, especially provenance information. Unspecified AdminMetadata
date Date / Date designation associated with a resource or element of description, such as date of title variation; year a degree was awarded; date associated with the publication, printing, distribution, issue, release or production of a resource. May be date typed. Unspecified Literal
place Place / Geographic location or place entity associated with a resource or element of description, such as the place associated with the publication, printing, distribution, issue, release or production of a resource, place of an event. Unspecified Place
agent Associated agent / Entity associated with a resource or element of description, such as the name of the entity responsible for the content or of the publication, printing, distribution, issue, release or production of a resource. Unspecified Agent
count Number of units / Number associated with a measure of units, such as the number of units and/or subunits making up a resource. Unspecified Literal
unit Type of unit / Units in which a value is expressed, such as the physical or logical constituent of a resource (e.g., a volume, audiocassette, film reel, a map, a digital file). Unspecified Unit
code Code / String of characters that serves as a code representing information. Unspecified Literal
source Source / Resource from which value or label came or was derived, such as the formal source/scheme from which a classification number is taken or derived, list from which an agent name is taken or derived, source within which an identifier is unique. Unspecified Source
note Note / General textual information relating to a resource, such as Information about a specific copy of a resource or information about a particular attribute of a resource. Unspecified Note
status Status / Designation of the validity or position of something, such as indication that the classification number is canceled or invalid, circulation availability of an item, indication of whether the identifier is canceled or invalid. Unspecified Status
part Part / Part of a resource to which information applies. Unspecified Literal
language Language information / Language associated with a resource or its parts. Unspecified Language

Category Properties

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
content Content type / Categorization reflecting the fundamental form of communication in which the content is expressed and the human sense through which it is intended to be perceived. Work Content
media Media type / Categorization reflecting the general type of intermediation device required to view, play, run, etc., the content of a resource. Work or Instance Media
carrier Carrier type / Categorization reflecting the format of the storage medium and housing of a carrier. Instance Carrier
genreForm Genre/form / Form category or genre to which a resource belongs Work, Instance or Item GenreForm

Title Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
title Title resource / Name given to a resource. Work, Instance or Item Title
mainTitle Main title / Title being addressed. Possible title component. Title Literal
subtitle Subtitle / Word, character, or group of words and/or characters that contains the remainder of the title after the main title. Possible title component. Title Literal
partNumber Part number / Part or section enumeration of a title. Possible title component. Title Literal
partName Part title / Part or section name of a title. Possible title component. Title Literal
variantType Variant title type / Type of title variation, e.g., acronym, cover, spine, earlier, later, series version. VariantTitle Literal

Work Identification Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
originDate date Associated title date / Date or date range associated with the creation of a Work. Work Literal
originPlace place Associated title place / Place from which the creation of the Work originated. Work Place
historyOfWork History of the work / Information about the history of a Work. Work Literal
musicMedium Music medium of performance / Instrumental, vocal, and/or other medium of performance for which a musical resource was originally conceived, written or performed. Work MusicMedium
instrument Instrument / Instrument for which a musical Work is appropriate. Work MusicInstrument
instrumentalType Instrument role / Specific role of instrument, such as alternate, doubling, solo, ensemble. MusicInstrument Literal
ensemble Ensemble / Ensemble for which a musical work is appropriate. Work MusicEnsemble
ensembleType Ensemble type / Specific type of ensemble, such as orchestra, band, guitar ensemble. MusicEnsemble Literal
voice Voice / Voice for which a musical work is appropriate, such as soprano, tenor, mixed. Work MusicVoice
voiceType Type of voice / Specific type of voice group, such as chorus, solo. MusicVoice Literal
musicSerialNumber Music serial number / Numeric designation for musical works consecutively numbered in music reference sources. Work Literal
musicOpusNumber Music opus number / Numeric designation of a musical work assigned by a composer, publisher, or a musicologist. Work Literal
musicThematicNumber Music thematic number / Numeric designation for a musical work as found in a thematic index for the composer. Work Literal
musicKey Music key / Pitch and mode for music. Work Literal
legalDate date Date of legal work / Date of legal work, or promulgation of a law, or signing of a treaty. Work Literal
version Version / Term or terms that identify works such as arranged for music, vulgate for religious work, etc. Work Literal

Work Description Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
natureOfContent Content nature / Characterization that epitomizes the primary content of a resource, e.g., field recording of birdsong; combined time series analysis and graph plotting system. Work or Instance Literal
geographicCoverage Geographic coverage / Geographic coverage of the content of the resource. Work Literal
temporalCoverage Temporal coverage / Time period coverage of the content of the resource. Work Literal
intendedAudience Intended audience / Information that identifies the specific audience or intellectual level for which the content of the resource is considered appropriate. Work or Instance IntendedAudience
arrangement Organization and arrangement / Information about the organization and arrangement of a collection of resources. Work or Instance Arrangement
pattern Arrangement of material / Pattern of arrangement of materials within a unit. Arrangement Literal
hierarchicalLevel Hierarchical level of material / Hierarchical position of the described materials relative to other material from the same source. Arrangement Literal
organization Organization of material / Manner in which the resource is divided into smaller units. Arrangement Literal
dissertation Dissertation Information / Work presented as part of the formal requirements for an academic degree. Work or Instance Dissertation
degree Degree / Degree for which author was a candidate. Dissertation Literal
grantingInstitution Degree issuing institution / Name of degree granting institution. Dissertation Agent
summary Summary content / Summary or abstract of the resource described. Work or Instance Summary
capture Capture of content / Information about place and date associated with the capture (e.g., recording, filming) of the content of a resource. Work or Instance Capture
notation Notation system / Alphabet, script, or symbol system used to convey the content of the resource, including specialized scripts, typefaces, tactile notation, movement notation, and musical notation. Work or Instance Notation
contentAccessibility Content accessibility note / Information that assists those with a sensory impairment for greater understanding of content, e.g., captions. Work or Instance Literal
illustrativeContent Illustrative content information / Information about content intended to illustrate a resource. Work or Instance Illustration
supplementaryContent Supplementary material / Material such as an index, bibliography, appendix intended to supplement the primary content of a resource. Work or Instance SupplementaryContent
colorContent Color content / Color characteristics, e.g., black and white, multicolored. Work or Instance ColorContent
soundContent Sound content / Indication of whether the production of sound is an integral part of the resource. Work or Instance SoundContent
aspectRatio Aspect ratio / Proportional relationship between an image's width and its height. Work or Instance AspectRatio
musicFormat Format of notated music / Layout for content of a resource that is presented in the form of musical notation, such as full score, condensed score, vocal score, etc. Work or Instance MusicFormat
duration Duration / Information about the playing time, running time, etc. of a resource. Work or Instance Literal
scale Scale / Ratio of the dimensions of a form contained or embodied in a resource to the dimensions of the entity it represents, e.g., for images or cartographic resources. Work or Instance Literal
cartographicAttributes Cartographic data / Cartographic data that identifies characteristics of the resource, such as coordinates, projection, etc. Work or Instance Cartographic
ascensionAndDeclination Cartographic ascension and declination / System for identifying the location of a celestial object in the sky covered by the cartographic content of a resource using the angles of right ascension and declination. Cartographic Literal
coordinates Cartographic coordinates / Mathematical system for identifying the area covered by the cartographic content of a resource, expressed either by means of longitude and latitude on the surface of planets or by the angles of right ascension and declination for celestial cartographic content. Cartographic Literal
equinox Cartographic equinox / One of two points of intersection of the ecliptic and the celestial equator, occupied by the sun when its declination is 0 degrees. Cartographic Literal
exclusionGRing Cartographic G ring area excluded / Coordinate pairs that identify the closed non-intersecting boundary of the area contained within the G-polygon outer ring that is excluded. Cartographic Literal
outerGRing Cartographic outer G ring area covered / Coordinate pairs that identify the closed non-intersecting boundary of the area covered. Cartographic Literal
projection Cartographic projection / Method or system used to represent the surface of the earth or of a celestial sphere on a plane. Cartographic Literal
awards Award note / Information on awards associated with the described resource. Work or Instance Literal
credits Credits note / Information in note form of credits for persons or organizations who have participated in the creation and/or production of the resource. Work or Instance Literal

Subject Term and Classification Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
subject Subject / Subject term(s) describing a resource. Work, Instance or Item rdfs:Resource
classification Classification / Classification number in any scheme. Work, Instance or Item Classification
schedulePart Classification designation / Designates whether the classification number is from the standard or optional part of a schedule or table. Classification Literal
edition Classification scheme edition / Edition of the classification scheme, such as full, abridged or a number, when a classification scheme designates editions. Classification Literal
itemPortion Classification item number / Number attached to a classification string that indicates a particular item. Classification Literal
classificationPortion Classification number / Classification number (single class number or beginning number of a span) that indicates the subject by applying a formal system of coding and organizing resources. Classification Literal
spanEnd Classification number span end / Ending number of classification number span. Classification Literal
table Classification table identification / Number of the table from which the classification number in a subdivision entry is taken, e.g., a DDC table. Classification Literal
tableSeq Classification table sequence number / Sequence number or other identifier for an internal classification sub arrangement or add in a classification scheme. Classification Literal

Instance Description Statements

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
responsibilityStatement Creative responsibility statement / Statement relating to any persons, families, or corporate bodies responsible for the creation of, or contributing to the content of a resource; usually transcribed. Instance Literal
editionStatement Edition statement / Information identifying the edition or version of the resource and associated statements of responsibility for the edition; usually transcribed. Instance Literal
editionEnumeration Edition enumeration / Enumeration of the edition; usually transcribed. Instance Literal
provisionActivityStatement Provider statement / Statement relating to providers of a resource; usually transcribed. Instance Literal
seriesStatement Series statement / Statement of the series the resource is in; usually transcribed; includes the ISSN if applicable. Instance Literal
seriesEnumeration Series enumeration / Series enumeration of the resource; usually transcribed. Instance Literal
subseriesStatement Subseries statement / Statement of the subseries the resource is in; usually transcribed; includes the ISSN if applicable. Instance Literal
subseriesEnumeration Subseries enumeration / Subseries enumeration of the resource; usually transcribed. Instance Literal

Instance Identification Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
frequency Frequency / Intervals at which the parts of a serially produced resource or the updates to an integrating resource are issued. Work or Instance Frequency
preferredCitation Preferred citation / Citation to the resource preferred by its custodian of the resource. Work or Instance Literal
issuance Mode of issuance / Categorization reflecting whether a resource is issued in one or more parts, the way it is updated, and its intended termination. Work or Instance Issuance
firstIssue Multipart first issue / Beginning date of a resource and/or the sequential designations. Work or Instance Literal
lastIssue Multipart last issue / Ending date of a resource and/or the sequential designations. Work or Instance Literal
provisionActivity Provider / Place, name, and/or date information relating to the publication, printing, distribution, issue, release, or production of a resource. Instance ProvisionActivity
copyrightDate date Copyright date / Date associated with a claim of protection under copyright or a similar regime. Work or Instance Literal

Instance description Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
custodialHistory Custodial history / Information about the provenance, such as origin, ownership and custodial history (chain of custody), of a resource. Work, Instance or Item Literal
acquisitionTerms Terms of acquisition / Conditions under which the publisher, distributor, etc., will normally supply a resource, e.g., price of a resource. Work or Instance Literal
acquisitionSource Source of acquisition / Information about an organization, etc., from which a resource may be obtained. Work or Instance Literal
copyrightRegistration Copyright registration information / Copyright and Legal Deposit registration information Work or Instance CopyrightRegistration
coverArt Cover art / Cover art image of a resource. Work or Instance CoverArt
review Review content / Review of a resource. Work or Instance Review
tableOfContents Table of contents content / Table of contents of the described resource. Work or Instance TableOfContents

Carrier Description information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
extent Extent / Number and type of units and/or subunits making up a resource. Instance Extent
dimensions Dimensions / Measurements of the carrier or carriers and/or the container of a resource. Instance Literal
baseMaterial Base material / Underlying physical material of a resource. Instance BaseMaterial
appliedMaterial Applied material / Physical or chemical substance applied to a base material of a resource. Instance AppliedMaterial
emulsion Emulsion / Suspension of light-sensitive chemicals used as a coating on a microfilm or microfiche, e.g., silver halide. Instance Emulsion
mount Mount material / Physical material used for the support or backing to which the base material of a resource has been attached. Instance Mount
productionMethod Production method / Process used to produce a resource. Instance ProductionMethod
generation Generation / Relationship between an original carrier and the carrier of a reproduction made from the original. Instance Generation
layout Layout / Arrangement of text, images, tactile notation, etc., in a resource. Instance Layout
bookFormat Book format / Result of folding a printed sheet to form a gathering of leaves. Instance BookFormat
fontSize Font size / Size of the type used to represent the characters and symbols in a resource. Instance FontSize
polarity Polarity / Relationship of the colors and tones in an image to the colors and tones of the object reproduced. Instance Polarity
reductionRatio Reduction ratio / Size of a micro-image in relation to the original from which it was produced. Instance ReductionRatio
soundCharacteristic Sound characteristic / Technical specification relating to the encoding of sound in a resource. Instance SoundCharacteristic
projectionChracteristic Projection characteristic / Technical specification relating to the projection of a motion picture film. Instance ProjectionCharacteristic
videoCharacteristic Video characteristic / Technical specification relating to the encoding of video images in a resource Instance VideoCharacteristic
digitalCharacteristic Digital characteristic / Technical specification relating to the digital encoding of text, image, audio, video, and other types of data in a resource. Instance DigitalCharacteristic
systemRequirements Equipment or system requirements / Equipment or system requirements beyond what is normal and obvious for the type of carrier or type of file, such as make and model of equipment or hardware, operating system, amount of memory, programming language, other necessary software, any plug-ins or peripherals required to play, view, or run the resource, etc. Instance Literal

Item Informaton

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
enumerationAndChronology Numbering or other enumeration and dates associated with issues or items held. / Numbering and dates of issues or items held. Item EnumerationAndChronology
heldBy Held by / Entity holding the item or from which it is available. Item Agent
subLocation Held in sublocation / Specific place within the holding entity where the item is located or made available. Item Sublocation
physicalLocation Storing or shelving location / Location in the holding agency where the item is shelved or stored. Item Literal
shelfMark Shelf mark / Piece identifier, such as a call or other type of number. Item ShelfMark
electronicLocator Electronic location / Electronic location from which the resource is available. Item rdfs:Resource
barcode Barcode / Optical machine-readable representation of data relating to the item, to which it is attached. Item Barcode
usageAndAccessPolicy Use and access condition / General statement of allowances and restrictions on access to a resource, including retention, reproduction, access, and lending. Work, Instance or Item UsageAndAccessPolicy
immediateAcquisition Immediate acquisition / Information about the circumstances, e.g., source, date, method, under which the resource was directly acquired. Item Literal

Type Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
noteType Note type / Type of note. Note Literal

Cataloging Resource Relationships - General

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
hasInstance relatedTo Instance of Work / Instance is related to described Work. For use to connect Works to Instances in the BIBFRAME structure. Work Instance
instanceOf relatedTo Instance of / Work the Instance described instantiates or manifests. For use to connect Instances to Works in the BIBFRAME structure. Instance Work
hasExpression relatedTo Expressed as / Work that is an expression of a described Work. For use to relate Works under FRBR/RDA rules. Work Work
expressionOf relatedTo Expression of / Work that the described Work is an expression of. For use to connect Works under FRBR/RDA rules. Work Work
itemOf relatedTo Holding for / Instance that is an example of the described Item. Item Instance
hasItem relatedTo Has holding / Item for which the described Instance is an exemplar. Instance Item

Cataloging Resource Relationships - Specific

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
eventContent relatedTo Event content / Work whose content is the described event. Event Work
eventContentOf relatedTo Has event content / Event that is the content of the described work. Work Event
hasPart relatedTo Has part / Resource that is included either physically or logically in the described resource Work, Instance or Item Work, Instance or Item
partOf relatedTo Is part of / Resource in which the described resource is physically or logically contained. Work, Instance or Item Work, Instance or Item
accompaniedBy relatedTo Accompanied by / Resource that accompanies the described resource. Work, Instance or Item Work, Instance or Item
accompanies relatedTo Accompanies / Resource that adds to or is issued with the described resource. Work, Instance or Item Work, Instance or Item
hasDerivative relatedTo Has derivative / Resource that is a modification of the described work. Work or Instance Work or Instance
derivativeOf relatedTo Is derivative of / Source work from which the described resource is derived. Work or Instance Work or Instance
precededBy relatedTo Preceded by / Resource that precedes the resource being described, e.g., is earlier in time or before in narrative. Work or Instance Work or Instance
succeededBy relatedTo Succeeded by / Resource that succeeds the resource being described, e.g., later in time or after in a narrative. Work or Instance Work or Instance
references relatedTo References / Resource that is referenced by the described resource. Work, Instance or Item Work, Instance or Item
referencedBy relatedTo Referenced by / Resource that references the described resource Work, Instance or Item Work, Instance or Item

Cataloging Resource Relationships - Detailed

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
hasReproduction hasEquivalent Reproduced as / Resource that reproduces another Resource. Instance Instance
reproductionOf hasEquivalent Reproduction of / Resource that is a reproduction of another Resource. Instance Instance
dataSource relatedTo Data source / Resource that is a data source to which the described resource is related. It may contain information about other files, printed sources, or collection procedures. Work or Instance Work or Instance
hasSeries partOf In series / Resource in which the part has been issued; the title of the larger resource appears on the part. Work or Instance Work or Instance
seriesOf hasPart Series container of / Resource that is a part of a larger resource. Work or Instance Work or Instance
hasSubseries partOf Subseries / series resource that is part of another series. Work or Instance Work or Instance
subseriesOf hasPart Subseries of / Series resource of which the described resource is a part. Work or Instance Work or Instance
supplement accompaniedBy Supplement / Resource that updates or otherwise complements the predominant resource. Work or Instance Work or Instance
supplementTo accompanies Supplement to / Resource that is updated or otherwise complemented by the augmenting resource. Work or Instance Work or Instance
translation derivativeOf Translation as / Resource that translates the text of the source entity into a language different from that of the original. Work or Instance Work or Instance
translationOf hasDerivative Translation of / Resource that has been translated, i.e., the text is expressed in a language different from that of the original resource. Work or Instance Work or Instance
originalVersion derivativeOf Original version / Resource is the original version of which this resource is a reproduction. Work or Instance Work or Instance
originalVersionOf hasDerivative Original version of / Original version of a resource. Work or Instance Work or Instance
index accompaniedBy Index / Resource has an accompanying index Work or Instance Work or Instance
indexOf accompanies Index to / Index that accompanies a resource. Work or Instance Work or Instance
otherEditionOf hasDerivative Other edition of / Resource is an edition of another resource. Work or Instance Work or Instance
findingAid accompaniedBy Finding aid / Relationship for archival, visual, and manuscript resources to a finding aid or similar control materials. Work or Instance Work or Instance
findingAidOf accompanies Finding aid for / Finding aid or similar control materials for archival, visual, and manuscript resources. Work or Instance Work or Instance
separatedFrom precededBy Separated from / Resource that spun off a part of its content to form a new resource. Work or Instance Work or Instance
splitInto succeededBy Split into / One of two or more resources resulting from the division of an earlier resource into separate resources. Work or Instance Work or Instance
replacementOf precededBy Preceded by / Earlier resource whose content has been replaced by a later resource, usually because the later resource contains updated or new information. Work or Instance Work or Instance
replacedBy succeededBy Succeeded by / Later resource used in place of an earlier resource, usually because the later resource contains updated or new information. Work or Instance Work or Instance
mergerOf precededBy Merger of / One of two or more resources which came together to form a new resource. Work or Instance Work or Instance
mergedToForm succeededBy Merged to form / One of two or more resources that come together to form a new resource. Work or Instance Work or Instance
continues precededBy Continuation of / Resource that is continued by the content of a later resource under a new title. Work or Instance Work or Instance
continuesInPart precededBy Continuation in part of / Resource that split into two or more separate resources with new titles. Work or Instance Work or Instance
absorbed precededBy Absorption of / Resource that has been incorporated into another resource. Work or Instance Work or Instance
absorbedBy succeededBy Absorbed by / Resource that incorporates another resource. Work or Instance Work or Instance
continuedBy succeededBy Continued by / Resource whose content continues an earlier resource under a new title. Work or Instance Work or Instance
continuedInPartBy succeededBy Continued in part by / Resource part of whose content separated from an earlier resource to form a new resource. Work or Instance Work or Instance

Agent Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
contributor Contributor / Generalized relationship role when no specific role can be given. Work, Instance or Item Agent
contribution Contributor role / Agent and its role in relation to the resource. Work, Instance or Item Contribution
role Agent role / Specific role of agent. Contribution Literal

Administration Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
assigner Assigner / Entity that assigned the metadata, such as the entity that assigned a classification number, entity that assigned a name, entity that assigned an identifier. AdminMetadata Agent
derivedFrom Source metadata / Link to the metadata that was the source of the data. AdminMetadata Literal
changeDate date Description change date / Date or date and time on which the metadata was modified. AdminMetadata Literal
creationDate date Description creation date / Date or date and time on which the original metadata first created. AdminMetadata Literal
descriptionConventions Description conventions / Rules used for the descriptive content of the resource description. AdminMetadata DescriptionConventions
descriptionLanguage Description language / Language used for the metadata. AdminMetadata Language
generationProcess Description generation / Indication of the program or process used to generate the description by application of a particular transformation. AdminMetadata GenerationProcess
descriptionModifier Description modifier / Agency that modified a description. AdminMetadata Agent
descriptionAuthentication Description authentication / Indication of specific types of reviews that have been carried out on the description information. AdminMetadata DescriptionAuthentication
generationDate date Date generated / Date of conversion of the metadata from another format. AdminMetadata Literal
last update: 2016-05-20T15:31:13.103-04:00