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Anat (West Semitic deity)


  • URI(s)

  • Instance Of

  • Scheme Membership(s)

  • Collection Membership(s)

  • Variants

    • Anath (West Semitic deity)
    • ʻAnatu (West Semitic deity)
    • ʻNt (West Semitic deity)
    • ʻT̲trt (West Semitic deity)
    • ʻAt̲tartu (West Semitic deity)
    • Anant (West Semitic deity)
    • Anit (West Semitic deity)
    • Anti (West Semitic deity)
    • Anthat (West Semitic deity)
    • Antit (West Semitic deity)
    • Anata (West Semitic deity)
    • Anta (West Semitic deity)
    • Antu (West Semitic deity)
    • Anat (Ugaritic deity)
    • Anath (Ugaritic deity)
    • Anat (Canaanite deity)
    • Anath (Canaanite deity)
    • Anat (Syrian deity)
    • Anath (Syrian deity)
    • Anat (Egyptian deity)
    • Anath (Egyptian deity)
  • Additional Information

    • Descriptor

        West Semitic deity
    • Descriptor

        Ugaritic deity
    • Descriptor

        Canaanite deity
    • Descriptor

        Syrian deity
    • Descriptor

        Egyptian deity
    • Descriptor

        Goddesses, Semitic
    • Descriptor

        Goddesses, Ugaritic
    • Descriptor

        Goddesses, Egyptian
    • Descriptor

        Goddesses, Canaanite
    • Descriptor

        Goddesses, Syrian
    • Associated Locale

        Syria
    • Associated Locale

        Egypt
    • Associated Locale

        Ugarit (Extinct city)
    • Associated Locale

        Middle East
    • Associated Locale

        Canaan
    • Gender

        Females
  • Use For

  • Exact Matching Concepts from Other Schemes

  • Closely Matching Concepts from Other Schemes

    • WikidataAnat Offsite linkLabel from public data source Wikidata
  • Sources

    • found: Cassuto, Umberto. Elah ʻAnat. English. The goddess Anath : Canaanite epics of the patriarchal age, 1971:pages 64-65 (Anath (ʻnt); a customary epithet applied to her in Ugaritic writings is btlt ("the virgin"), and it is impossible to tell whether the Canaanites understood this title literally, or whether they attributed it to a symbolic connotation only; from the land of Canaan the cult of Anath passed over to Egypt, possibly through the medium of the Hyksos. During the 18th Dynasty, and even more so during the 19th Dynasty, Anath was regarded in Egypt as one of the greatest goddesses)
    • found: Cornelius, Izak. The many faces of the goddess : the iconography of the Syro-Palestinian goddesses Anat, Astarte, Qedeshet, and Asherah c. 1500-1000 BCE, 2008.
    • found: Bowman, Charles Howard, III. The goddess ʻAnatu in the ancient Near East, 1978.
    • found: George, Tina M. The warrior goddess who rules the Ugaritic pantheon : the mythological traditions of 'Anat during the late Bronze Age, 2016.
    • found: Virolleaud, Charles. La déesse ʻAnat, 1938.
    • found: Walls, Neal H. The goddess Anat in Ugaritic myth, 1992.
    • found: Oldenburg, Ulf. The conflict between El and Baʻal in Canaanite religion, 1969:page 2 (the young and lusty storm god Baʻal Hadad, whose father is Dagân and his sister is ʻAnat; the Ugaritic pantheon)
    • found: Van Zijl, Peter J. Baal, 1972:index (ʻAnat)
    • found: Olmo Lete, Gregorio del. Religión cananea. English. Canaanite religion, 1999:page 46 (ʻAnatu) page 52 (double names for the principal deities: ʻnt/ʻttrt (ʻAnatu/ʻAt̲tartu)
    • found: Kapelrud, Arvid S. Baal in the Ras Shamra texts, 1952:page 64 (Anat was Baal's sister (as well as his consort)) page 66 (the goddess Anat, ʻnt)
    • found: Encyclopedia of religion, 2005(Anat. The maiden Anat (btltʻnt) is a West Semitic or Canaanite warrior-goddess known for her violent temperament and volatile emotions. Although her name and cult are attested from the late third millennium BCE to the fourth century BCE, Anat plays a prominent role only in the Late Bronze Age mythological texts from the Syrian city of Ugarit (modern-day Ras Shamra); Anat was introduced into Egypt during the Hyksos period (c. 1650-1550 BCE) and became a patron goddess of the Ramesside era (c. 1295-1069 BCE) as the "Mistress of the Heavens," a martial goddess who gives victory in battle. Aramaic texts from the fifth-century BCE Jewish community in Elephantine, Egypt, refer to Anat-Bethel and Anat-Yahu, which some scholars interpret as references to the goddess Anat as the consort of the gods Bethel ("House of God") and Yahweh, respectively. Other scholars translate the word ʻnt as "providence" or "sign" and understand it as the cultic hypostasis of the male deity rather than the appearance of Anat in the syncretistic Jewish literature; Hellenistic sources sometimes equate Anat with the virgin warrior Athena, as in a fourth-century BCE bilingual inscription in Phoenician and Greek from Lapethos on Cyprus. Later traditions often identify Anat with other Canaanite goddesses, such as Astarte and Atargatis-Derketo)
    • found: Encyclopædia Britannica online, August 6, 2019(Anath, deity; Anath, also spelled Anat, chief West Semitic goddess of love and war, the sister and helpmate of the god Baal. Considered a beautiful young girl, she was often designated "the Virgin" in ancient texts. Probably one of the best-known of the Canaanite deities, she was famous for her youthful vigour and ferocity in battle; in that respect she was adopted as a special favourite by the Egyptian king Ramses II (reigned 1279-13 BC). Although Anath was often associated with the god Resheph in ritual texts, she was primarily known for her role in the myth of Baal's death and resurrection, in which she mourned and searched for him and finally helped to retrieve him from the netherworld. Egyptian representations of Anath show a nude goddess, often standing on a lion and holding flowers. During the Hellenistic Age, the goddesses Anath and Astarte were blended into one deity, called Atargatis) - https://www.britannica.com/topic/Anath
    • found: Ancient Egypt online, August 6, 2019(Anat (also known as Anant, Anit, Anti, Anthat and Antit) was an ancient Canaanite deity who became popular in ancient Egypt towards the end of the Middle Kingdom. She was particularly popular in the northern delta area during the Second Intermediate period (the Hyksos period) but her worship suggests that there had been a slow migration of people from the levant for some time before the Hyksos invasion) - https://ancientegyptonline.co.uk/anat/
    • found: Anat, mother of gods, via Tour Egypt website, viewed August 6, 2019(goddess, Anat, who was one of a number of deities imported into Egypt from the Syrian region; The name Anat occurs in several forms in Ugaritic, Hebrew, Akkadian, and Egyptian, and as in such cases, the forms may vary widely. For example, in the Ugarit V Deity List it is spelled da-na-tu to be pronounced 'Anatu'. Otherwise in Phoenician it is `nt and is pronounced 'Anat', 'Anatu', 'Anath' or 'Anata'. The name is usually translated from Hebrew as 'Anath', but it could also be 'Anat'. The Akkadian form is usually written as 'Anta' or 'Antu'. The Egyptian forms are 'Anant', 'Anit', 'Anti', and 'Antit'. We may also find variations of her name in reference books such as Anthat; the Goddess Anat was known among the Canaanites in prehistoric times, and was doubtless of considerable importance in that region. From the fertile agricultural area along the eastern Mediterranean coast, her cult spread throughout the Levant by the middle of the third millennium BC. Around the beginning of the Phoenician period (circa 1200 BC) Anat enjoyed a significant cult following. She was very prominent at Ugarit, a major religious center, and appears frequently in Ugaritic literary works; Her cult became established in Egypt by the end of the Middle Kingdom, even before the Hyksos (Asiatics probably from Syria) invasion of Egypt, so her presence certainly attests to the slow immigration (or perhaps more often, enslavement as the spoils of war) of the Hyksos prior to their ultimate rule of Egypt. However, she attained prominence, particularly in the north (the Delta) during the Second Intermediate Period rule of the Hyksos, who appear to have promoted her cult in Egypt; her prestige reached its height in Egypt under Ramesses II who adopted Anat as his personal guardian in battle; In Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine the worship of Anat persisted into Christian times (c. 200 AD), and perhaps much longer in popular religion. In Egypt traditional religion was practiced until the end of the Egyptian period (c. 400 AD). Anat may have been worshiped in one or more of the few Egyptian temples that remained open into the early 6th century AD. In contemporary times the worship of Anat has been revived in neo-pagan religion) - http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/anat.htm
    • found: The American journal of Semitic languages and literatures, January 1925:page 73 (the West-Semitic divinity ʻAn-ʻAnat-ʻAttâ) page 81 (the Syrian goddess ʻAnat) page 82 (ʻAnat appears in Egypt during the Ramessid age in the role of war-goddess)
  • Change Notes

    • 2019-08-06: new
    • 2020-01-06: revised
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