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    • found: Work cat.: 2009050972: Microaggressions and marginality, c2010:p. vii (separate chapters on racial/ethnic, international/cultural, gender, lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT), disability, class, and religious microaggressions) p. 3 (Microaggressions are the everyday verbal, nonverbal, and environmental slights, snubs, or insults, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative messages to target persons based solely upon their marginalized group membership. In many cases, these hidden messages may invalidate the group identity or experiential reality of target persons, demean them on a personal or group level, communicate they are lesser human beings, suggest they do not belong with the majority group, threaten and intimidate, or relegate them to inferior status and treatment. While microaggressions are generally discussed from the perspective of race and racism, any marginalized group in our society may become targets: people of color, women, lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgendered people (LGBTs), those with disabilities, religious minorities, and so on.) p. 6 (Microaggressions reflect the active manifestation of oppressive worldviews that create, foster, and enforce marginalization.)
    • found: 2009034007: Sue, D.W. Microaggressions in everyday life, c2010:pp. xv-xvi (racial, gender, and sexual-orientation microaggressions) p. xvi (In reviewing the literature on subtle and contemporary forms of bias, the term "microaggressions" seems to best describe the phenomenon in its everyday occurrence. Simply stated, microaggressions are brief, everyday exchanges that send denigrating messages to certain individuals because of their group membership. The term was first coined by Pierce in 1970 in his work with Black Americans, in which he defined it as "subtle, stunning, often automatic, and nonverbal exchanges which are 'put downs'". They have also been described as "subtle insults (verbal, nonverbal, and/or visual) directed toward people of color, often automatically or unconsciously." ... They are often unconsciously delivered as subtle snubs or dismissive looks, gestures, and tones. These exchanges are so pervasive and automatic in daily conversations and interactions that they are often dismissed and glossed over as being innocent and innocuous.) p. 5 (Microaggressions are the brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, and environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial, gender, sexual-orientation, and religious slights and insults to the target person or group.)
    • found: 2012033272: Nadal, K.L. That's so gay! : microaggressions and the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community, ©2013
    • found: Wang, J. Why and when do racial microaggressions hurt?, 2012:abstr. (Racial microaggressions are brief, potentially ambiguous everyday exchanges that may send denigrating messages to racial minorities)
    • found: Gonzales, L. Microaggressions experienced by persons with mental illnesses, in Psychiatric rehabilitation journal, Nov. 17, 2014, viewed online May 26, 2015:p. 1 (Microaggressions are subtle verbal or behavioral communications of disparaging messages to people based upon membership in a socially marginalized group. Their negative impact has been demonstrated for racial/ethnic groups, gender, sexual orientation, and physical disability, but currently no research exists on microaggressions as experienced by persons with mental illnesses; Microaggressions are distinct from more traditional and overt forms of discrimination in that otherwise well-intentioned individuals can deliver them unconsciously, unaware of their potential harmful effects. Seminal research on microaggressions by Sue et al. (2007) focused primarily on race, identifying three major categories: microassaults, which involve explicit attacks and are most like more traditional forms of racism; microinsults, consisting of insensitive and demeaning remarks; and microinvalidations, which negate an individual's personal experience of their reality.)
    • found: Huynh, V.W. Ethnic microaggressions and the depressive and somatic symptoms of Latino and Asian American adolescents, in Journal of youth & adolescence, July 2012, viewed online May 26, 2015:abstr. (Ethnic microaggressions are a form of everyday, interpersonal discrimination that are ambiguous and difficult to recognize as discrimination. ... Microaggressions should be recognized as subtle discrimination that send messages about group status and devaluation, and similar to overt discrimination, can evoke powerful emotional reactions and may affect mental health.)
    • found: Microaggressions in everyday life blog, via Psychology today website, May 26, 2015(oppression (microaggressions); subtle and covert forms of discrimination, also known as microaggressions) -
    • notfound: APA dictionary of psychology, c2007;Colman, A.M. A dictionary of psychology, 2001;Corsini, R.J. The dictionary of psychology, c1999;Statt, D.A. The concise dictionary of psychology, 1990;Reber, A.S. The Penguin dictionary of psychology, 1985;Encyclopedia of human relationships, c2009;The Blackwell encyclopedia of sociology, 2007;A dictionary of sociology, 1998
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