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Hanging Gardens of Babylon

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  • Variants

    • Babylon, Hanging Gardens of
    • Hanging Garden of Babylon
    • Hanging Garden of Nineveh
    • Hanging Gardens of Nineveh
    • Nineveh, Hanging Gardens of
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  • Sources

    • found: Work cat.: 2013431777: Dalley, S. The mystery of the Hanging Garden of Babylon, 2013:p. 1 (Babylon was the city where the famous Hanging Garden was located, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, built by Nebuchadnezzar the Great) p. 203 (the Hanging Garden was built at Nineveh, not Babylon, by Sennacherib, not Nebuchadnezzar or Semiramis; the correct decipherment of a 7th-century BC Assyrian inscription gives a match with the crucial elements in descriptions of later Greek authors) pp. 206-207 (From detailed articles already published, the attribution of the Hanging Garden to Sennacherib at Nineveh has now been accepted by many scholars)
    • found: Encyclopædia Britannica online, Jan. 14, 2019(Hanging Gardens of Babylon, ancient gardens considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World and thought to have been located near the royal palace in Babylon. By the beginning of the 21st century, the site of the Hanging Gardens had not yet been conclusively established; Research in the late 20th and early 21st centuries suggested that popular theories holding that the Hanging Gardens had once thrived in Babylon atop a rooftop or terraced ziggurat were perhaps misconceptions. Instead, a later theory postulated that, owing to confusion among Classical sources, the Hanging Gardens might well have been those constructed by Sennacherib (705/704-681 BCE) at Nineveh. This research suggested that the gardens were laid out on a sloping construct designed to imitate a natural mountain landscape and were watered by a novel system of irrigation, perhaps making early use of what would eventually be known as the Archimedes screw)
    • found: Champdor, A. Babylon, ©1958:p. 128 (Hanging Gardens, one of the wonders of the ancient world) p. 147 (Hanging Gardens of Babylon)
    • found: Alberge, D. Babylon's hanging garden: ancient scripts give clue to missing wonder, in The guardian, 5 May 2013, viewed online Jan. 14, 2019(whereabouts of the Hanging Garden of Babylon has been one of the great mysteries from antiquity; Stephanie Dalley of Oxford University has amassed a wealth of textual evidence to show that the garden was instead created at Nineveh, 300 miles from Babylon, in the early 7th century BC; she has concluded that the garden was built by the Assyrians in the north of Mesopotamia--in modern Iraq--rather than by their great enemies the Babylonians in the south)
    • found: Jordan, P. The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, 2014:p. 3 (The Hanging Gardens of Babylon) p. 109 (Hanging Gardens) p. 112 (The absence of the Hanging Gardens or anything like them in all the annals of Nebuchadnezzar and later Babylonian records is very striking)
    • found: Cambridge archaeological journal, May 2016:p. 259 (Textual evidence from the reign of Sennacherib support Dalley's (2013) reconstruction of Nineveh as the location of the famed 'Hanging Gardens', mistakenly attributed by later Classical authors to Babylon)
    • found: Charney, N. Did ISIS inadvertently uncover the secret to the "lost" Hanging Gardens of Babylon?, via Salon website, Mar. 12, 2017, viewed Jan. 14, 2019(In 2014, the terrorist group announced its destruction of the Nebi Yunus shrine, traditionally believed to be the tomb of the Prophet Jonah and a part of the ancient ruins of the city of Nineveh; when ISIS blew up parts of the Nebi Yunus shrine, it unveiled a major discovery: a palace that predated the Tomb of Jonah and had been buried beneath it; evidence suggests the newly discovered palace from the 7th century B.C. is one that historians knew about but had thought long lost--one begun by King Sennacherib and completed by his son, Esarhaddon; no known Babylonian texts refer to the gardens; recent scholars suggest that this garden of Babylon might have been conflated with a garden that did indeed exist, for which archaeological evidence is available: a famous garden built not in Babylon but by the destroyer of Babylon, Assyrian King Sennacherib, for his capital in Nineveh, the same king who started the palace that was just discovered; Herodotus, when describing Babylon, does not mention the Hanging Gardens, suggesting that this wonder was never in that city to begin with; remains entirely possible that they were never in Babylon at all and that instead they should have been called the Hanging Gardens of Nineveh, built by the king who razed Babylon and raised a palace there that was just discovered)
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    • [This heading is not valid for use as a geographic subdivision.]
  • Change Notes

    • 2019-01-14: new
    • 2019-04-09: revised
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