The Library of Congress > Linked Data Service > BIBFRAME Ontology: Category view
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BIBFRAME Logo This display of the BIBFRAME vocabulary presents all of the properties, sorted into broad categories like titles, identifiers, relationships, etc.
Version 2.1.0

General Properties

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
identifiedBy Identifier / Character string associated with a resource that serves to differentiate that resource from other resources, i.e., that uniquely identifies an entity. rdfs:Resource Identifier
identifies Resource identified / Resource that is associated with a character string that serves to differentiate one resource from another. Identifier rdfs:Resource
qualifier Qualifier / Qualifier of information, such as an addition to a title to make it unique or qualifying information associated with an identifier. rdfs:Resource Literal
adminMetadata Administrative metadata / Metadata about the metadata, especially provenance information. rdfs:Resource AdminMetadata
adminMetadataFor Administrative metadata for / Relates an Administrative metadata resource to the resource it captures information about. AdminMetadata rdfs:Resource
noteFor Note for / Relates a Note resource to the resource to which the note pertains. Note rdfs:Resource
date Date / Date designation associated with a resource or element of description, such as date of title variation; year a degree was awarded; date associated with the publication, printing, distribution, issue, release or production of a resource. May be date typed. rdfs:Resource Literal
place Place / Geographic location or place entity associated with a resource or element of description, such as the place associated with the publication, printing, distribution, issue, release or production of a resource, place of an event. rdfs:Resource rdfs:Resource
agent Associated agent / Entity associated with a resource or element of description, such as the name of the entity responsible for the content or of the publication, printing, distribution, issue, release or production of a resource. rdfs:Resource rdfs:Resource
agentOf Associated agent of / Property relating an agent, such as an entity responsible for the content or of the publication, printing, distribution, issue, release or production, to another resource. rdfs:Resource rdfs:Resource
count Number of units / Number associated with a measure of units, such as the number of units and/or subunits making up a resource. rdfs:Resource Literal
unit Type of unit / Units in which a value is expressed, such as the physical or logical constituent of a resource (e.g., a volume, audiocassette, film reel, a map, a digital file). rdfs:Resource Unit
code Code / String of characters that serves as a code representing information. rdfs:Resource Literal
assigner Assigner / Entity that assigned the metadata, such as the entity that assigned a classification number, entity that assigned a name, entity that assigned an identifier. rdfs:Resource rdfs:Resource
source Source / Resource from which value or label came or was derived, such as the formal source/scheme from which a classification number is taken or derived, list from which an agent name is taken or derived, source within which an identifier is unique. rdfs:Resource rdfs:Resource
note Note / General textual information relating to a resource, such as Information about a specific copy of a resource or information about a particular attribute of a resource. rdfs:Resource Note
status Status / Designation of the validity or position of something, such as indication that the classification number is canceled or invalid, circulation availability of an item, indication of whether the identifier is canceled or invalid. rdfs:Resource Status
part Part / Part of a resource to which information applies. rdfs:Resource Literal
language Language information / Language associated with a resource or its parts. rdfs:Resource Language

Category Properties

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
content Content type / Categorization reflecting the fundamental form of communication in which the content is expressed and the human sense through which it is intended to be perceived. Work Content
media Media type / Categorization reflecting the general type of intermediation device required to view, play, run, etc., the content of a resource. Media
carrier Carrier type / Categorization reflecting the format of the storage medium and housing of a carrier. Instance Carrier
genreForm Genre/form / Form category or genre to which a resource belongs rdfs:Resource

Title Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
title Title resource / Name given to a resource. Title
titleOf Title of / Relates a title resource to that which it is the title of. Title
mainTitle Main title / Title being addressed. Possible title component. Title Literal
subtitle Subtitle / Word, character, or group of words and/or characters that contains the remainder of the title after the main title. Possible title component. Title Literal
partNumber Part number / Part or section enumeration of a title. Possible title component. Title Literal
partName Part title / Part or section name of a title. Possible title component. Title Literal
variantType Variant title type / Type of title variation, e.g., acronym, cover, spine, earlier, later, series version. VariantTitle Literal

Work Identification Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
originDate date Origin date / Date or date range associated with the creation of a Work. Work Literal
originPlace place Origin place / Place from which the creation of the Work originated. Work rdfs:Resource
historyOfWork History of the work / Information about the history of a Work. Work Literal
musicMedium Music medium of performance / Instrumental, vocal, and/or other medium of performance for which a musical resource was originally conceived, written or performed. Work MusicMedium
instrument Instrument / Instrument for which a musical Work is appropriate. Work MusicInstrument
instrumentalType Instrument role / Specific role of instrument, such as alternate, doubling, solo, ensemble. MusicInstrument Literal
ensemble Ensemble / Ensemble applicable to the Work. Work Ensemble
ensembleType Ensemble type / Specific type of ensemble, such as orchestra, band, guitar ensemble. Ensemble Literal
voice Voice / Voice for which a musical work is appropriate, such as soprano, tenor, mixed. Work MusicVoice
voiceType Type of voice / Specific type of voice group, such as chorus, solo. MusicVoice Literal
musicSerialNumber Music serial number / Numeric designation for musical works consecutively numbered in music reference sources. Work Literal
musicOpusNumber Music opus number / Numeric designation of a musical work assigned by a composer, publisher, or a musicologist. Work Literal
musicThematicNumber Music thematic number / Numeric designation for a musical work as found in a thematic index for the composer. Work Literal
musicKey Music key / Pitch and mode for music. Work Literal
legalDate date Date of legal work / Date of legal work, or promulgation of a law, or signing of a treaty. Work Literal
version Version / Term or terms that identify works such as arranged for music, vulgate for religious work, etc. Work Literal

Work Description Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
natureOfContent Content nature / Characterization that epitomizes the primary content of a resource, e.g., field recording of birdsong; combined time series analysis and graph plotting system. Literal
geographicCoverage Geographic coverage / Geographic coverage of the content of the resource. rdfs:Resource GeographicCoverage
temporalCoverage Temporal coverage / Time period coverage of the content of the resource. Work Literal
intendedAudience Intended audience / Information that identifies the specific audience or intellectual level for which the content of the resource is considered appropriate. IntendedAudience
collectionArrangement Collection Organization and arrangement / Information about the organization and arrangement of a collection of resources. CollectionArrangement
collectionArrangementOf Organization and arrangement of Collection / Relates an Arrangement resource to that which it describes. CollectionArrangement
pattern Arrangement of material / Pattern of arrangement of materials within a unit. CollectionArrangement Literal
hierarchicalLevel Hierarchical level of material / Hierarchical position of the described materials relative to other material from the same source. CollectionArrangement Literal
collectionOrganization Organization of material / Manner in which the resource is divided into smaller units. CollectionArrangement Literal
dissertation Dissertation Information / Work presented as part of the formal requirements for an academic degree. Dissertation
degree Degree / Degree for which author was a candidate. Dissertation Literal
grantingInstitution Degree issuing institution / Name of degree granting institution. Dissertation rdfs:Resource
summary Summary content / Summary or abstract of the resource described. Summary
capture Capture of content / Information about place and date associated with the capture (e.g., recording, filming) of the content of a resource. Capture
notation Notation system / Alphabet, script, or symbol system used to convey the content of the resource, including specialized scripts, typefaces, tactile notation, movement notation, and musical notation. Notation
contentAccessibility Content accessibility information / Information that assists those with a sensory impairment for greater understanding of content, e.g., captions. ContentAccessibility
illustrativeContent Illustrative content information / Information about content intended to illustrate a resource. Illustration
supplementaryContent Supplementary material / Material such as an index, bibliography, appendix intended to supplement the primary content of a resource. SupplementaryContent
colorContent Color content / Color characteristics, e.g., black and white, multicolored. ColorContent
soundContent Sound content / Indication of whether the production of sound is an integral part of the resource. SoundContent
aspectRatio Aspect ratio / Proportional relationship between an image's width and its height. AspectRatio
musicFormat Format of notated music / Layout for content of a resource that is presented in the form of musical notation, such as full score, condensed score, vocal score, etc. MusicFormat
duration Duration / Information about the playing time, running time, etc. of a resource. Literal
scale Scale / Ratio of the dimensions of a form contained or embodied in a resource to the dimensions of the entity it represents, e.g., for images or cartographic resources. Scale
cartographicAttributes Cartographic data / Cartographic data that identifies characteristics of the resource, such as coordinates, projection, etc. Cartographic
ascensionAndDeclination Cartographic ascension and declination / System for identifying the location of a celestial object in the sky covered by the cartographic content of a resource using the angles of right ascension and declination. Cartographic Literal
coordinates Cartographic coordinates / Mathematical system for identifying the area covered by the cartographic content of a resource, expressed either by means of longitude and latitude on the surface of planets or by the angles of right ascension and declination for celestial cartographic content. Cartographic Literal
equinox Cartographic equinox / One of two points of intersection of the ecliptic and the celestial equator, occupied by the sun when its declination is 0 degrees. Cartographic Literal
exclusionGRing Cartographic G ring area excluded / Coordinate pairs that identify the closed non-intersecting boundary of the area contained within the G-polygon outer ring that is excluded. Cartographic Literal
outerGRing Cartographic outer G ring area covered / Coordinate pairs that identify the closed non-intersecting boundary of the area covered. Cartographic Literal
projection Cartographic projection / Method or system used to represent the surface of the earth or of a celestial sphere on a plane. Cartographic Projection
awards Award note / Information on awards associated with the described resource. Literal
credits Credits note / Information in note form of credits for persons or organizations who have participated in the creation and/or production of the resource. Literal

Subject Term and Classification Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
subject Subject / Subject term(s) describing a resource. rdfs:Resource
subjectOf Subject of / Relates a subject to that which it describes. rdfs:Resource
classification Classification / Classification number in any scheme. Classification
schedulePart Classification designation / Designates whether the classification number is from the standard or optional part of a schedule or table. Classification Literal
edition Classification scheme edition / Edition of the classification scheme, such as full, abridged or a number, when a classification scheme designates editions. Classification Literal
itemPortion Classification item number / Number attached to a classification string that indicates a particular item. Classification Literal
classificationPortion Classification number / Classification number (single class number or beginning number of a span) that indicates the subject by applying a formal system of coding and organizing resources. Classification Literal
spanEnd Classification number span end / Ending number of classification number span. Classification Literal
table Classification table identification / Number of the table from which the classification number in a subdivision entry is taken, e.g., a DDC table. Classification Literal
tableSeq Classification table sequence number / Sequence number or other identifier for an internal classification sub arrangement or add in a classification scheme. Classification Literal

Instance Description Statements

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
responsibilityStatement Creative responsibility statement / Statement relating to any persons, families, or corporate bodies responsible for the creation of, or contributing to the content of a resource; usually transcribed. Instance Literal
editionStatement Edition statement / Information identifying the edition or version of the resource and associated statements of responsibility for the edition; usually transcribed. Instance Literal
editionEnumeration Edition enumeration / Enumeration of the edition; usually transcribed. Instance Literal
provisionActivityStatement Provider statement / Statement relating to providers of a resource; usually transcribed. Instance Literal
seriesStatement Series statement / Statement of the series the resource is in; usually transcribed; includes the ISSN if applicable. Instance Literal
seriesEnumeration Series enumeration / Series enumeration of the resource; usually transcribed. Instance Literal
subseriesStatement Subseries statement / Statement of the subseries the resource is in; usually transcribed; includes the ISSN if applicable. Instance Literal
subseriesEnumeration Subseries enumeration / Subseries enumeration of the resource; usually transcribed. Instance Literal

Instance Identification Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
pubFrequency Publication frequency / Relates a resource to a publication frequency resource to capture such details as first issue, last issue, status, etc. PubFrequency
frequency Frequency / Intervals at which the parts of a serially produced resource or the updates to an integrating resource are issued. rdfs:Resource Frequency
preferredCitation Preferred citation / Citation to the resource preferred by its custodian of the resource. Literal
issuance Mode of issuance / Categorization reflecting whether a resource is issued in one or more parts, the way it is updated, and its intended termination. Issuance
firstIssue Multipart first issue / Beginning date of a resource and/or the sequential designations. rdfs:Resource Literal
lastIssue Multipart last issue / Ending date of a resource and/or the sequential designations. rdfs:Resource Literal
provisionActivity Provision activity / Place, name, and/or date information relating to the publication, printing, distribution, issue, release, production, etc. of a resource. Instance ProvisionActivity
copyrightDate date Copyright date / Date associated with a claim of protection under copyright or a similar regime. Literal

Instance description Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
custodialHistory Custodial history / Information about the provenance, such as origin, ownership and custodial history (chain of custody), of a resource. Literal
acquisitionTerms Terms of acquisition / Conditions under which the publisher, distributor, etc., will normally supply a resource, e.g., price of a resource. Literal
acquisitionSource Source of acquisition / Information about an organization, person, etc., from which a resource may be obtained. rdfs:Resource
copyrightRegistration Copyright registration information / Copyright and Legal Deposit registration information CopyrightRegistration
coverArt Cover art / Cover art image of a resource. CoverArt
review Review content / Review of a resource. Review
tableOfContents Table of contents content / Table of contents of the described resource. TableOfContents

Carrier Description information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
extent Extent / Number and type of units and/or subunits making up a resource. rdfs:Resource Extent
dimensions Dimensions / Measurements of the carrier or carriers and/or the container of a resource. Instance Literal
material Material / Resource uses, is composed of, integrates, etc. the related material. rdfs:Resource
materialOf Material of / This material is related to a resource. rdfs:Resource
baseMaterial material Base material / Underlying physical material of a resource. rdfs:Resource
baseMaterialOf materialOf Base material of / Relates a Material resource to that which it is the base material of. Instance rdfs:Resource
appliedMaterial material Applied material / Physical or chemical substance applied to a base material of a resource. rdfs:Resource
appliedMaterialOf materialOf Appllied material of / Relates a Material resource to that which it is the applied material of. Instance rdfs:Resource
emulsion Emulsion / Suspension of light-sensitive chemicals used as a coating on a microfilm or microfiche, e.g., silver halide. Instance Emulsion
mount Mount material or object / Physical material or object used for the support or backing to which the base material of a resource has been attached. Instance rdfs:Resource
productionMethod Production method / Process used to produce a resource. Instance ProductionMethod
generation Generation / Relationship between an original carrier and the carrier of a reproduction made from the original. Instance Generation
layout Layout / Arrangement of text, images, tactile notation, etc., in a resource. Instance Layout
bookFormat Book format / Result of folding a printed sheet to form a gathering of leaves. Instance BookFormat
fontSize Font size / Size of the type used to represent the characters and symbols in a resource. Instance FontSize
polarity Polarity / Relationship of the colors and tones in an image to the colors and tones of the object reproduced. Instance Polarity
reductionRatio Reduction ratio / Size of a micro-image in relation to the original from which it was produced. Instance ReductionRatio
soundCharacteristic Sound characteristic / Technical specification relating to the encoding of sound in a resource. Instance SoundCharacteristic
projectionCharacteristic Projection characteristic / Technical specification relating to the projection of a motion picture film. Instance ProjectionCharacteristic
videoCharacteristic Video characteristic / Technical specification relating to the encoding of video images in a resource Instance VideoCharacteristic
digitalCharacteristic Digital characteristic / Technical specification relating to the digital encoding of text, image, audio, video, and other types of data in a resource. Instance DigitalCharacteristic
systemRequirement Equipment or system requirements / Equipment or system requirement beyond what is normal and obvious for the type of carrier or type of file, such as make and model of equipment or hardware, operating system, amount of memory, programming language, other necessary software, any plug-ins or peripherals required to play, view, or run the resource, etc. Instance SystemRequirement

Item Informaton

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
enumerationAndChronology Numbering or other enumeration and dates associated with issues or items held. / Numbering and dates of issues or items held. Item EnumerationAndChronology
heldBy Held by / Entity holding the item or from which it is available. Item rdfs:Resource
sublocation Held in sublocation / Specific place within the holding entity where the item is located or made available. Item Sublocation
physicalLocation Storing or shelving location / Location in the holding agency where the item is shelved or stored. Item Literal
shelfMark Shelf mark / Piece identifier, such as a call or other type of number. Item ShelfMark
electronicLocator Electronic location / Electronic location from which the resource is available. rdfs:Resource rdfs:Resource
usageAndAccessPolicy Use and access condition / General statement of allowances and restrictions on access to a resource, including retention, reproduction, access, and lending. UsageAndAccessPolicy
immediateAcquisition Immediate acquisition / Information about the circumstances, e.g., source, date, method, under which the resource was directly acquired. Item ImmediateAcquisition

Type Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
noteType Note type / Type of note. Note Literal

Cataloging Resource Relationships - General

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
hasInstance relatedTo Instance of Work / Instance is related to described Work. For use to connect Works to Instances in the BIBFRAME structure. Work Instance
instanceOf relatedTo Instance of / Work the Instance described instantiates or manifests. For use to connect Instances to Works in the BIBFRAME structure. Instance Work
hasExpression relatedTo Expressed as / Work that is an expression of a described Work. Use to relate Works under LRM/RDA guidelines or similar implementations. Work Work
expressionOf relatedTo Expression of / Work that the described Work is an expression of. Use to connect Works under LRM/RDA guidelines or similar implementations. Work Work
itemOf relatedTo Holding for / Instance for which the described Item is an example. Item Instance
hasItem relatedTo Has holding / Item which is an example of the described Instance. Instance Item

Cataloging Resource Relationships - Specific

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
eventContent relatedTo Event content / Work whose content is the described event. Event Work
eventContentOf relatedTo Has event content / Event that is the content of the described work. Work Event
hasPart relatedTo Has part / Resource that is included either physically or logically in the described resource
partOf relatedTo Is part of / Resource in which the described resource is physically or logically contained.
accompaniedBy relatedTo Accompanied by / Resource that accompanies the described resource.
accompanies relatedTo Accompanies / Resource that adds to or is issued with the described resource.
hasDerivative relatedTo Has derivative / Resource that is a modification of the described work.
derivativeOf relatedTo Is derivative of / Source work from which the described resource is derived.
precededBy relatedTo Preceded by / Resource that precedes the resource being described, e.g., is earlier in time or before in narrative.
succeededBy relatedTo Succeeded by / Resource that succeeds the resource being described, e.g., later in time or after in a narrative.
references relatedTo References / Resource that is referenced by the described resource.
referencedBy relatedTo Referenced by / Resource that references the described resource

Cataloging Resource Relationships - Detailed

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
hasReproduction hasEquivalent Reproduced as / Resource that reproduces another Resource. Instance Instance
reproductionOf hasEquivalent Reproduction of / Resource that is a reproduction of another Resource. Instance Instance
dataSource relatedTo Data source / Resource that is a data source to which the described resource is related. It may contain information about other files, printed sources, or collection procedures.
hasSeries partOf In series / Resource in which the part has been issued; the title of the larger resource appears on the part.
seriesOf hasPart Series container of / Resource that is a part of a larger resource.
hasSubseries partOf Subseries / series resource that is part of another series.
subseriesOf hasPart Subseries of / Series resource of which the described resource is a part.
supplement accompaniedBy Supplement / Resource that updates or otherwise complements the predominant resource.
supplementTo accompanies Supplement to / Resource that is updated or otherwise complemented by the augmenting resource.
arrangement relatedTo Arrangement / Relates one resource to another of which it is an arrangement of the first. Work Work
arrangementOf relatedTo Arrangement of / Relates an arrangement to the resource of which it is an arrangement. Work Work
translation hasDerivative Translation as / Resource that translates the text of the source entity into a language different from that of the original.
translationOf derivativeOf Translation of / Resource that has been translated, i.e., the text is expressed in a language different from that of the original resource.
originalVersion derivativeOf Original version / Resource is the original version of which this resource is a reproduction.
originalVersionOf hasDerivative Original version of / Original version of a resource.
index accompaniedBy Has index / Resource has an accompanying index
indexOf accompanies Index to / Index that accompanies a resource.
findingAid accompaniedBy Finding aid / Relationship for archival, visual, and manuscript resources to a finding aid or similar control materials.
findingAidOf accompanies Finding aid for / Finding aid or similar control materials for archival, visual, and manuscript resources.
separatedFrom precededBy Separated from / Resource that spun off a part of its content to form a new resource.
splitInto succeededBy Split into / One of two or more resources resulting from the division of an earlier resource into separate resources.
replacementOf precededBy Preceded by / Earlier resource whose content has been replaced by a later resource, usually because the later resource contains updated or new information.
replacedBy succeededBy Succeeded by / Later resource used in place of an earlier resource, usually because the later resource contains updated or new information.
mergerOf precededBy Merger of / One of two or more resources which came together to form a new resource.
mergedToForm succeededBy Merged to form / One of two or more resources that come together to form a new resource.
continues precededBy Continuation of / Resource that is continued by the content of a later resource under a new title.
continuesInPart precededBy Continuation in part of / Resource that split into two or more separate resources with new titles.
absorbed precededBy Absorption of / Resource that has been incorporated into another resource.
absorbedBy succeededBy Absorbed by / Resource that incorporates another resource.
continuedBy succeededBy Continued by / Resource whose content continues an earlier resource under a new title.
continuedInPartBy succeededBy Continued in part by / Resource part of whose content separated from an earlier resource to form a new resource.

Agent Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
contribution Contributor and role / Agent and its role in relation to the resource. Contribution
contributionOf Contribution of / Relates a contribution resource, which associates an Agent and Role together, to the relevant resource. Contribution
role Contributor role / Function provided by a contributor, e.g., author, illustrator, etc. Contribution Role

Administration Information

Property Subproperty of Label / Description Used With Expected Value
derivedFrom Source metadata / Link to the metadata that was the source of the data. AdminMetadata rdfs:Resource
changeDate date Description change date / Date or date and time on which the metadata was modified. AdminMetadata Literal
creationDate date Description creation date / Date or date and time on which the original metadata first created. AdminMetadata Literal
descriptionConventions Description conventions / Rules used for the descriptive content of the resource description. AdminMetadata DescriptionConventions
descriptionLanguage Description language / Language used for the metadata. AdminMetadata Language
generationProcess Description generation / Indication of the program or process used to generate the description by application of a particular transformation. AdminMetadata GenerationProcess
descriptionModifier Description modifier / Agency that modified a description. AdminMetadata rdfs:Resource
descriptionAuthentication Description authentication / Indication of specific types of reviews that have been carried out on the description information. AdminMetadata DescriptionAuthentication
generationDate date Date generated / Date of conversion of the metadata from another format. AdminMetadata Literal
last update: 2021-06-24T13:27:14.395-04:00